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Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

TBI is also known as intracranial injury, and is any type of injury that results in trauma to the scalp, skull, or brain and classified as a head injury. The terms “traumatic brain injury” and “head injury” are used interchangeably. This broad classification includes brain hemorrhages, vascular injuries, cranial nerve injuries, and other neuronal injuries. These classifications depend on whether the injury is an open head injury where the skull was broken, or not, as in closed head injury. Traumatic Brain Injury focuses on the nature of the injury and on its effects.

Functional Limitations

  • Attention impairment – difficulty paying attention
  • Cognitive impairment – difficulty making decisions, etc.
  • Language impairment – speech confabulation, aphasia, etc.
  • Memory impairment – short or long term memory problems
  • Conduct disorder – anger management problem, irrational behavior disturbances, etc.
  • Motor disorder – neurological-based motor skills
  • An impairment from other neurological dysfunctions
  • Accommodations

  • Alternate tests
  • Extended time on exams
  • Distraction-reduced testing space
  • Short break during exams
  • Reduced course load
  • Extended time on assignments
  • Access to class notes, a note-taker, or use of a tape recorder for lectures
  • Teaching Strategies

  • Provide preferential seating if possible (close to the instructor)
  • Provide frequent repetition of important tasks
  • Provide verbal and written instruction during class
  • Shorten assignments and/or divide assignments into parts
  • Give short, frequent quizzes, rather than all-inclusive exams
  • Accompany homework with written instructions
  • Allow additional time to complete in-class assignments
  • Provide students with instructor’s notes or help students obtain quality notes from other students
  • Provide student with an outline of the instructor’s lecture or study guide
  • Avoid placing students in high-pressure situations, such as reading aloud in front of the class.
  • Our Sources and Additional Resources:

  • Definition of Brain Injury – A Starting Point:
  • Head injury: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
  • “Head Injury: Description”: Seattle Children’s Hospital:
  • Accommodations Guide for Students with Brain Injury: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Virginia Commonwealth University: